Seemingly minor parenting behaviours can have a serious impact on children.

Most people clearly recognize that serious maltreatment, like abuse or neglect, can have a lasting impact on children. But what about toxic parenting strategies that don't rise to an extreme level of abuse? Or what about destructive parenting behaviours that might be less obvious?

Here are 10 toxic parenting behaviours that can make children less functional in adulthood:

1. Shielding kids from pain

While you don't want to expose kids to pain just for the purpose of "toughening them up," you also don't want to shield them from all discomfort. Kids who lack experience dealing with pain often become adults who crumble when they encounter adversity.

2. Invalidating their feelings

Telling kids to "stop worrying" or "stop crying" sends a message that their feelings are bad. It teaches them that they need to hide their feelings or fight those emotions. They may grow up to mask their feelings or numb their pain in unhealthy ways.

3. Praising their achievements only

When parents praise kids for getting a perfect score on a math test or the most points in the game, they teach them that their accomplishments matter more than everything else.

Kids who only hear praise for their achievements (rather than for putting in the hard work it took to get there or a willingness to be brave and try something where they may fail) may grow up to become adults who think they need to succeed at all costs. They might be more willing to lie, cheat, and steal so they can come out a winner.

4. Living vicariously through their kids

Parents have unhealed emotional wounds, too. And it can be tempting to try and live through your kids as a way to heal those wounds. But, when a parent insists that a child try to reach their own unrealized dreams, their children are likely to grow up without a strong sense of self. They may be resentful toward their parents while also being dependent on them to help make decisions.

5. Expecting perfection

Setting the bar high can be good for kids. It teaches them that they can do more than they think. But expecting perfection could cause them to feel like they can't ever measure up. They may grow up to feel as though they aren't good enough because they couldn't achieve what you told them they could.

6. Using fear to gain compliance

Whether a parent shoots kids intimidating looks or threatens to embarrass or hit them, scaring kids into complying can backfire. They'll be more likely to make decisions based on fear instead of on what they actually believe is right. This could cause them to become an adult without a healthy moral compass.


7. Trying to win favour with their kids

Whether parents are co-parenting after they're divorced or still happily married, some parents work hard to be the "favourite." And while winning a child's favour might make a parent feel good momentarily, ultimately the kids lose in the end. They may grow up to become adults who manipulate others as a way to get what they want.

8. Using guilt trips as a tool

Constantly reminding your child how hard you work to pay for their stuff or insisting that they'd listen better if they really loved you might guilt kids into doing what you want. But it also means they'll be easy targets for that friend who wants to cheat off their paper. Or they may turn into adults who repeat the pattern by using guilt as a weapon against their loved ones as well.

9. 'Parentifying' their kids

Parents who lack adult confidantes or are insecure about their decision-making may depend on their kids to step up. Giving kids more information and responsibility than they're capable of handling raises their anxiety and leaves them feeling like you aren't equipped to lead the family. Consequently, they may grow up to become anxious adults who feel as though they need to constantly control everything around them to stay safe.

10. Being emotionally unavailable

It's cliché but it's true — kids need your presence more than presents.

Parents who are always staring at their phones or too busy and stressed out to support their kids emotionally aren't fostering their child's emotional development. Kids who grow up with emotionally unavailable parents may struggle to develop healthy, meaningful relationships in adulthood.


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